About India : Some Facts & Figures


  • India is second most populous and seventh largest country (area-wise ) in the world.
  • It lies to the North of the equator between 8Degree 4' and 37Degree 6' north latitude and 68Degree 7' and 97Degree 25' east latitude.

National Flag :

  • Date of adoption by Constituent Assembly : 22 July 1947.
  • Presented to the Nation on : 14 August 1947.
  • A deep saffron (Kesari ) band at the top, a white band in the middle and a dark green band at the bottom.
  • At the centre of the white band there is a wheel (Chakra ) which is navy blue in colour. 
  • The wheel has 24 spokes and its diameter is approximately equal to the width of the white band.
  • The design of the wheel is that of the Chakra which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Emperor Ashoka.
National Emblem :

  • Date of adoption by the Government of India : 26 January 1950.
  • The words "Satyameva Jayate" taken from the Mundaka Upnishad meaning "Truth Alone Triumphs" are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari Script.
National Anthem (Jana-Gana-Mana) :

  • Composer : Rabindranath Tagore
  • First Published : January, 1912
  • First Sung : 27 December, 1911 at Culcutta
  • Date of Adoption by the Constituent Assembly : 24 January, 1950.
  • National Anthem was published under the title Bharat Vidhata in the Tatva Bodhini Patrika. 
  • It was translated by Tagore himself in 1919 under the title Morning Song of India.
National Song ( Vande Mataram ) :

  • Composer : Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.
  • First Sung : 1896 session of the Congress.
  • Date of Adoption by the Constituent Assembly : 24 January, 1950.(Along with National Anthem )
  • English Translation : Rendered by Sri Aurobindo.
  • The National Song has been taken from the Bankim Chandra Chatterjee's novel, Ananda Math published in 1882.
National Calender (Saka) :

  • From 22 March, 1957 (Saka, 1879) a unified National Calender, to be used for official purpose, was introduced  based on the Saka Era which began with Vernal Equinox of 78 A.D. Chaitra is the First and Phaguna the last month of the Saka Year.
National Bird : Peacock

National Flower : Lotus

National Animal : Tiger

See Also :
कृषि के विविध आयाम
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